In robotic surgeries, there is no need to make a large incision on the patient; an incision as small as 1 cm is made to place a camera and several surgical instruments during a gynecological operation. Robotic surgery is in fact the upper stage of the laparoscopic procedure which is known as closed surgery by the public. The patient abdominal cavity is accessed by a small incision as with laparoscopy to insert mechanical arms and instruments but most importantly a camera that provides a three dimensional image. Robotic surgery allows for a more precise view, intervention and procedure than laparoscopy. The surgeon sits at the consol to control the robot which precisely replicates the hand movements of the surgeon. This method provides a magnified, precise and close image for the surgeon; allows a procedure to be performed more effectively and easily; and the patients feel less uncomfortable.
Robotic surgery can perform any surgical procedures that are performed by laparoscopy. Thus, any operations that are known as closed surgery by the public can be performed by robotic surgery. These include a wide range of operations from prostate procedures to cardiovascular surgeries, surgeries of gall bladder to the gynecological diseases. The “minimally invasive surgery”, which is the surgical current of the era, is intended to perform a surgery required for the patient health with minimal damage to the adjacent tissues using an approach to conserve the organs as much as possible. This is the benefit to the patient and important for the success of the surgery and less side effects.
The patient abdominal cavity is entered through small incisions to insert a camera and several miniaturized surgical instruments so that the large incisions can be avoided; postoperative recovery period can be shortened, and patients can return to daily life faster and easier. Robotic surgery provides advantages over laparoscopy. The robot’s arms contain a magnified high-definition 3D camera that guides and allow the surgeon to closely see the surgical site in 3D and down to the least detail and to recognize and conserve small nerves and blood vessels. Every movement the surgeon makes is replicated precisely by the robot, which makes an operation perfect, so that any sites that cannot be accessed by the surgeon hand and instruments in an open surgery can be entered with minimal damage to the peripheral tissues. The primary reasons for robotic surgery include the ability of robot arms to freely move inside and perform the function of several surgical instruments at the same time; causing much less hemorrhage; and faster recovery time.
As described above, the main advantage of this method is that the procedures can be performed through small incisions (in cm) so that the wound healing can be faster; hernia can be prevented; aesthetical problems can be avoided; and the patient can return to normal daily life faster and easier. Another advantage over open surgery or laparoscopy is that it allows a surgeon to have control over the surgical site because of clearer and closer view of the operation area. This also means less complication, less damage to the adjacent tissues, and more precise patient benefit.
Robotic surgical devices were introduced into our country soon after they were started to use worldwide. The period between the start time in the world and the start time in the country can be disregarded. In Turkey, only a limited number of centers perform hysterectomy (removal of uterus), operations for ovarian cysts and myoma (myomectomy) but most importantly gynecological cancer operations as in the world.
There is always risk even for a simple tooth extracting or injection as in the phrase we use to give example to our patients. But the question here is “What is the risk compared to other classical surgical methods?” instead of “Are there any risks?” The answer to that question will be definitely the risks and complications will be lower than conventional methods, open surgery, and laparoscopy
The reason why robotic surgery has rapidly become common in the world is that “minimally invasive surgery” poses less risk to the patient as described above, and improves the success rate.