Male infertility can be caused by hormonal factors arising from hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid, and testicles as well as by the structure, number of sperms, and insufficient rate of motile sperms. In addition, genetic abnormalities, trauma, and some previous infections can cause decreased production of sperms and infertility. Infections in particular could result in infertility if they are not treated correctly and timely manner. They include infections of epididymis and mumps if testicles are involved.
Obstructions caused by sexually transmitted diseases or nonspecific infections can affect sperm excretion, resulting in infertility. Removal of this obstruction can permanently correct infertility in some cases and sometimes assisted reproduction is utilized.
Retrograde ejaculation occurs when semen goes backwards into the bladder instead excreted out from the penis. It can occur in cases such as diabetes and previous prostate operation. This problem can be cured by medical procedures; because the urine is toxic to sperm, some sperms can be collected from the bladder for use in assisted reproduction after making some preparations suggested by your doctor.
For normal sperm production, testicles should have a temperature a few degrees lower than normal body temperature. Therefore, undescended testicles could lead to fertility problems despite being corrected surgically.
It is enlargement of veins of testicles and can sometimes lead to infertility. If varicocele is considered to be the cause of infertility after evaluation, it may require a minor surgery for correction.
Although it is not very common in our country, it is a procedure in which the vas deferens is tied for birth control. Despite being corrected surgically, no sperm might appear in the semen; in this case fertilization is not possible with normal methods.
Cancer can cause infertility in many ways. Surgical procedures applied could directly result in infertility. Furthermore, drugs and radiation used in the treatment can cause infertility.
With age, men go through some hormonal changes as women do, and decreased sperm production is seen. However, mostly these changes are unlikely to cause infertility.
Smoking and alcohol abuse have significant adverse effects on male reproduction health. Being overweight and use of anabolic drugs also reduce the chance of fertilization.
Although it cannot be blamed of infertility alone, high temperature could have negative effects on testicles therefore men should not wear tight trousers, or briefs keeping the testicles near the body, and have a hot bath.