Cancers may not give indicator in early periods. That is they start insidiously. For this reason check-up programs are developed for some cancers which are seen frequently, are possible to prevent or catch in an early period. In the case of other cancers some investigations are applied. Things to be done for each cancer are mentioned below. The ones which aren’t included in routine check-up program are indicated separately.
The most frequently used method in scanning the people for lung cancer is chest radiography, chest tomography and searching for the cancerous cell in phlegm. Particularly chest tomography and searching for the cancerous cell in phlegm are more sensitive methods than chest radiography. It is suggested to healthy people to make routine cancer “check-up”, moreover the ones who carry the risk of lung cancer can apply these tests. The ones with high risk of lung cancer are the ones who are smoking, exposed to asbestos and whose parents have lung cancer. Except from these, these investigations can be made in the cases mentioned below. Thus not only lung cancer but also other diseases that may occur in lung can be diagnosed. These situations are:
- Cough continuing for a while
- Blood coming from mouth.
- Continuous compliment about phlegm.
- The voice’s getting hoarse and rough.
- Chest pain, back pain or side pain whose reason cannot be explained
- Dyspnea that cannot be explained
- chronic obstructive lung disease
Prostate cancer is one of the cancers that are most frequently seen among the men. It is easy to diagnose. It is necessary to look the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in blood among all the men older than 50 yearly. In the cases of high level PSA, with suspicious of prostate cancer further investigation should be done. Prostate cancer doesn’t give indicator in early periods. In the case that it gives indicators, the disease generally progresses further. The indicators of the disease may be confused with prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia. For this reason it is beneficial to look the PSA for diagnosis among the adult men in the cases mentioned below:
- Slowing and reducing of urine
- Widdling an nights or increase in the frequency
- Blood in urine
- Difficulty in erection
- Destension of the inguen lymphatic
- Unexplainable bone pain due to intense pain when it spread to the bones
Breast cancer is the caner which is most frequently seen among the women. The entire women who reach 40 should make mammography once a year. Although this period is suggested as two years by someone, we prefer to make it one a year. It can be made after age 50. It has been determined that mammography provides to detect the breast cancer early and saves life when the risk and benefit analysis has been made. It is a harmless and easy examination method that can be made beginning from the age of 20. For the diagnosis of breast cancer other imaging methods are mammary ultrasonography and mammary magnetic resonance imaging (MR). Except from yearly controls, in such situations breast examination should be made and imaging technical should be applied.
- Unpainful and non-disappearing lump in breast
- Blister or downfall on breast skin
- Papilla’s withdrawing to inside
- The fact that fluid comes from the papilla unilaterally and instinctively
- In further periods, the fact that bulks become apparent and causes oedema and ulcer on the skin
- The fact that armpit adenoids grows and becomes palpable
They are generally noticed due to the fact that they are on the surface. However sometimes there are some skins parts to which we cannot reach with eyes so dermatological investigation should be made once a year. Here the places such as scalp where lesions can hide are controlled. And changes on the mole and other skin lesions can be detected by dermatologists
There is not routine check-up control for the patient without complaint in stomach cancer. However gastroscopy also named as upper endoscopy is made within the patients who have its symptoms. In such cases gastroscopy can be applied.
- Indefinite disorder or pain on the upper middle region of abdomen.
- Early fill feeling
- Frequently belching
- swallowing difficulty
- Throwing up
- The fact that blood comes from mouth due to the digestive system
- Unexplainable loss of weight
- Unknown anorexia, asthenia and weakness feeling
There isn’t routine check-up. When there is a suspect about the disease, it is looked with an investigation named as cystoscopy by entering into bladder through urinary canal.
Large intestinal cancer
Are you older than 50 years? In this situation we suggest to make colonoscopy to everyone, men and women. In colonoscopy, if the large intestinal is found normal, it is necessary to make the test again once in 5-10 years. Except from colonoscopy occult blood can be searched in stools.
Besides, in such situations mentioned below we should be cautious about large intestinal cancer. In this case it is necessary to start controls earlier and to make the investigation more frequently.
- If large intestinal cancer has been seen among the family
- If there is polyp story in family
- If adenomatous polyposis disease or gene have been detected in family
- If polyp has been found in large intestinal
- If there is intestinal disease going with defluxion such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease
On the other hand, colonoscopy may be necessary in such situations in which there are such situations:
- Changes in defecation habits
- Defecation going with costive and diarrhea attacks
- Thinning in stool caliber
- Blood in stool
- Unknown iron deficiency anemia.
There isn’t routine check-up program. In the case of a suspect, hand and neck examination and thyroid ultrasonography should be made. A biopsy should be conducted on suspected nodule.
There isn’t routine check-up program. %20 of uterine cancers doesn’t give indicators. In these 'pap smear' tests are made. In this test wipe sample is taken from cervical. Actually 'pap smear' test is a very important test for detecting them before they generalize. It should be made once in a year after the sexual life begins. However it is less effective in detecting uterine cancer but not cervical cancer. When it is suspected from uterine cancer tomography or MR of the abdomen can be made beside 'pap smear'.
There isn’t routine check-up program. In any suspicious situation, information about the disease can be obtained by looking the CA-125 protein in blood. Whether there is bulk in ovaries can be understood with gynecology examination, ultrasonography and MR. 8034